Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Affixes meN_i and meN_kan Part 1

In the course of my study and teaching of the Malay language, I have discovered certain patterns in the usage of affixes such as meN_i and meN_kan which are added to words to form transitive verbs. I would like to share this finding in this blog of mine. This is the first part of my posts.

The words mentioned above are anugerah, beri, hadiah, jatuh, kirim, kurnia, lempar, serah, nama, pinjam, hujan, bekal, hidang, tugas, maaf, cucur, hubung, and cerita.

These are the rules for the above list.
1 meN_i + word is followed by person
Example: Sultan itu menganugerahi pemimin itu pingat P.J.K.
[The Sultan awarded the title of P.J.K. to the leader.]

2 meN_kan + word is followed by thing / matter
Example: Saya memberikan buku itu kepada Ali.
[I gave the book to Ali.]

3 person preceeds di_i + word
Example: Hashim dihadiahi sebuah album foto.
[Hashim was presented with a photo album.]

4 thing / matter preceeds di_kan + word
Example: Hukuman penjara selama lima tahun dijatuhkan oleh hakim itu kepada pencuri itu.
[Imprisonment of five years was sentenced to the thief by the judge.]

5 person preceeds saya / awak + i + word
Example: Abang saya kirimi buku yang diperlukan kelmarin.
[I posted to my brother the book he needed yesterday. Note: It will be odd to translate the above sentence into English. Hence I use the active voice instead]

6 thing /matter preceeds saya / awak + kan + word
Example: Batu itu saya lemparkan ke arah anjing itu untuk menghalaunya.
[I threw the stone towards the dog to drive it away.]

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